Resources and Research

Effectiveness of theta burst versus high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression (THREE-D): a randomised non-inferiority trial

Daniel M Blumberger 1Fidel Vila-Rodriguez 2Kevin E Thorpe 3Kfir Feffer 4Yoshihiro Noda 5Peter Giacobbe 6Yuliya Knyahnytska 7Sidney H Kennedy 8Raymond W Lam 9Zafiris J Daskalakis 10Jonathan Downar 11

Background: Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder is common; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by use of high-frequency (10 Hz) left-side dorsolateral prefrontal cortex stimulation is an evidence-based treatment for this disorder. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a newer form of rTMS that can be delivered in 3 min, versus 37·5 min for a standard 10 Hz treatment session. We aimed to establish the clinical effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of iTBS compared with standard 10 Hz rTMS in adults with treatment-resistant depression.